1800: The Company of Surgeons are awarded their Royal Charter and became The Royal College of Surgeons of England.
1800: The inception of the Second Great Awakening for the United States.
1801: The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge to form the United Kingdom.
1801: Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab.
1801–15: Barbary War between the United States and the Barbary States of North Africa
1803: The United States buys out France's territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans.
1803: Saudi Wahhabists conquered Mecca and destroyed various shrines.
1804: Haiti gains independence from France and becomes the first black republic.
1804: Austrian Empire founded by Francis I.
1804–10: Fulani Jihad in Nigeria.
1804–15: Serbian revolution erupts against the Ottoman rule. Suzerainty of Serbia recognized in 1817.
1805: The Battle of Trafalgar eliminates the French and Spanish naval fleets and allows for British dominance of the seas, a major factor for the success of the British Empire later in the century.
1805–48: Muhammad Ali modernizes Egypt.
1806: Holy Roman Empire dissolved as a consequence of the Treaty of Lunéville.
1807: Kingdom of Great Britain declares the Slave Trade illegal.
1808–09: Russia conquers Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War.
1808–14: Spanish guerrillas fight in the Peninsular War.
1809: Napoleon strips the Teutonic Knights of their last holdings in Bad Mergentheim.
1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu kingdom1810: The University of Berlin, the world's first research university, is founded. Among its students and faculty are Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. The German university reform proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world (see History of European research universities).
1810s–20s: Most of the Latin American colonies free themselves from the Spanish and Portuguese Empires after the Mexican War of Independence and the South American Wars of Independence.
1812: The French invasion of Russia is a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.
1812–15: War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom
1813–1907: The contest between the British Empire and Imperial Russia for control of Central Asia is referred to as the Great Game.
1815: The Congress of Vienna redraws the European map. The Concert of Europe attempts to preserve this settlement, but it fails to stem the tide of liberalism and nationalism that sweeps over the continent.
1815: Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo brings a conclusion to the Napoleonic Wars and marks the beginning of a Pax Britannica which lasts until 1870.
1816: Year Without a Summer: Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc throughout the Northern Hemisphere, likely caused by the 1815 explosion of Mount Tambora.
1816–28: Shaka's Zulu kingdom becomes the largest in Southern Africa.
1817: Principality of Serbia becomes suzerain from the Ottoman Empire. Officially independent in 1867.
1819: The modern city of Singapore is established by the British East India Company.
1819; Théodore Géricault paints his masterpiece The Raft of the Medusa, and exhibits it in the French Salon of 1819 at the Louvre.
1820: Liberia founded by the American Colonization Society for freed American slaves.
1821: Peru declares its independence from Spain
1822-23: First Mexican Empire, as Mexico's first post-independent government.
1821–27: Greece becomes the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire after the Greek War of Independence.
1822: Prince Pedro of Portugal proclamated the Brazilian independence on September 7. On December 1, he was crowned as Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil
1823–87: The British Empire annexed Burma (now also called Myanmar) after three Anglo-Burmese Wars.
1825: Erie Canal opened connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.
1826–28: After the final Russo-Persian War, the Persian Empire took back territory lost to Russia from the previous war.
1825–28: The Argentina-Brazil War results in the independence of Uruguay.
The Great Exhibition in London. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise..
1830: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is established on April 6, 1830.
1830: July Revolution in France.
1830: The Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands led to the creation of Belgium.
1830: Greater Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place.
1830 November Uprising in Poland against Russia.
1831: France invades and occupies Algeria.
1833: Slavery Abolition Act bans slavery throughout the British Empire.
1833–76: Carlist Wars in Spain.
1834: Spanish Inquisition officially ends.
1834–59: Imam Shamil's rebellion in Russian-occupied Caucasus.
1835–36: The Texas Revolution in Mexico resulted in the short-lived Republic of Texas.
1836: The Battle of the Alamo.
1837–1838: Rebellions of 1837 in Canada.
1837–1901: Queen Victoria's reign is considered the apex of the British Empire and is referred to as the Victorian era.
1838-40: Civil war in the Federal Republic of Central America led to the foundings of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
1839-51: Uruguayan Civil War
1839-60: After two Opium Wars, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia gained many concessions from China resulting in the decline of the Qing Dynasty.
1840: New Zealand is founded, as the Treaty of Waitangi is signed by the Maori and British.
1844: First publicly funded telegraph line in the world - between Baltimore and Washington - sends demonstration message on May 24, ushering in the age of the telegraph.
1844: Millerite movement awaits the Second Advent of Jesus Christ on October 22. Christ's non-appearance becomes known as the Great Disappointment.
1844: Persian Prophet the Báb announces his revelation, founding Bábísm. He announced to the world of the coming of "He whom God shall make manifest." He is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
1844: Dominican War of Independence from Haiti.
1845: Unification of the Kingdom of Tonga under Tāufaʻāhau (King George Tupou I)
1845-72: The New Zealand Land Wars
1845–49: The Irish Potato Famine led to the Irish diaspora.
1846–48: The Mexican-American War leads to Mexico's cession of much of the modern-day Southwestern United States.
1846–47: Mormon migration to Utah.
1847–1901: The Caste War of Yucatán.
1848: The Communist Manifesto published.
1848: Revolutions of 1848 in Europe
1848: Seneca Falls Convention is the first women's rights convention in the United States and leads to the battle for suffrage and women's legal rights.
1848-58: California Gold Rush
The Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War1850: The Little Ice Age ends around this time.
1851: The Great Exhibition in London was the world's first international Expo or World's Fair.
1851–60s: Victorian gold rush in Australia
1851–64: The Taiping Rebellion in China is the bloodiest conflict of the century.
1854: The Convention of Kanagawa formally ends Japan's policy of isolation.
1854–56: Crimean War between France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire and Russia
1855: Bessemer process enables steel to be mass produced.
1856: World's first oil refinery in Romania
1857–58: Indian Rebellion of 1857
1859: The Origin of Species published.
The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe.1861–65: American Civil War between the Union and seceding Confederacy
1861: Russia abolishes serfdom.
1861–67: French intervention in Mexico and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire, ruled by Maximilian I of Mexico..
1862–1877: Muslim Rebellion in northwest China.
1863: Bahá'u'lláh declares His station as "He whom God shall make manifest". This date is celebrated in the Bahá'í Faith as The Festival of Ridván.
1863: Formation of the International Red Cross is followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention in 1864.
1863–1865: Polish uprising against the Russian Empire.
1864-66: The Chincha Islands War was an attempt by Spain to regain its South American colonies.
1864-70: The War of the Triple Alliance ends Paraguayan ambitions for expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population.
1865-77: Reconstruction in the United States; Slavery is banned in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
1865-April 9, 1865 Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
1865-April 15, 1865, United States President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated while attending a performance at Fords theater, Washington, D.C..
1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858.
1866: Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy.
1866-1868: Famine in Finland.
1866-69: After the Meiji Restoration, Japan embarks on a program of rapid modernization.
1867: The United States purchased Alaska from Russia.
1867: Canadian Confederation formed.
1867: Principality of Serbia passes the Constitution which defines its independent from Ottoman Empire. International recognition followed in 1878.
1869: First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States.
1869: The Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.
Alexander Graham Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone1870-71: The Franco-Prussian War results in the unifications of Germany and Italy, the collapse of the Second French Empire, the breakdown of Pax Britannica, and the emergence of a New Imperialism.
1871-1872: Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million.
1871-1914: Second Industrial Revolution
1870s-90s: Long Depression in Western Europe and North America
1872: Yellowstone National Park is created.
1873: Maxwell's A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism published.
1874: The Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known today as the Impressionists organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar.
1874: The British East India Company is dissolved.
1874-1875: First Republic in Spain.
1875-1900: 26 million Indians perished in India due to famine.
1876: The Bulgarian revolt against Ottoman rule.
1876-1879: 13 million Chinese died of famine in northern China.
1876-1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States is referred to as the Gilded Age.
1877: Great Railroad Strike in the United States may have been the world's first nationwide labor strike.
1877-78: Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognizes formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous.
1878: First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut.
1879: Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa.
Thomas Edison, 18781879-83: Chile battles with Peru and Bolivia over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific.
1880-1881: the First Boer War.
1881: First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming, Britain.
1881-1899: The Mahdist War in Sudan.
1883: Krakatoa volcano explosion.
1884-85: The Berlin Conference signals the start of the European "scramble for Africa". Attending nations also agree to ban trade in slaves.
1884-85: The Sino-French War led to the formation of French Indochina.
1885 : "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" by Robert Louis Stevenson is published.
1886: Russian-Circassian War ended with the defeat and the exile of many Circassians. Imam Shamil defeated.
1888 (August): Jack the Ripper is believed to have begun murdering.
1888 (November): Jack The ripper is believed to have murdered his last victim.
1888: Slavery banned in Brazil.
1889: Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad establishes the Ahmadi Muslim Community.
1889: End of the Brazilian Empire and the beginning of the Brazilian Republic
1890: The Wounded Knee Massacre was the last battle in the American Indian Wars. This event represents the end of the American Old West.
1894-95: After the First Sino-Japanese War, China cedes Taiwan to Japan and grants Japan a free hand in Korea.
1895-1896: Ethiopia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War.
1896: Olympic games revived in Athens.
1896: Klondike Gold Rush in Canada.
1897: Gojong, or Emperor Gwangmu, proclaims the short-lived Korean Empire: lasts until 1910.
1898: The United States gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the Spanish-American War.
1898-1900: The Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance.
1898-1902: The One Thousand Days war in Colombia breaks out between the "Liberales" and "Conservadores," culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903.
1899: Second Boer War begins (-1902); Philippine-American War begins (-1913).